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Sunday, March 2, 2014

4D Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB GYN)

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State-of-the-art 4D ultrasound and Doppler in maternal fetal medicine (MFM) - obstetrics and gynecology (OB GYN).

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Through PanoramaScan.com, our mission, for the past nine years, is to successfully and efficiently deliver state-of-the-art 4D sonography and Doppler education in maternal fetal medicine (MFM) - obstetrics and gynecology (OB GYN) through our huge library of obstetrics and gynecology ultrasound courses, ultrasound cases, ultrasound teaching files, sonograms (sonography images and ultrasonography videos), free ultrasound demos, ultrasound pdf documents and ultrasound ppt presentations.

Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology Ultrasound Services:

1- Prenatal diagnosis (the first trimester anomaly scan).
2- 4D ultrasound in obstetrics (the 22 weeks pregnancy ultrasound anomaly scan).
3- 3D utrasound in gynecology (abdominal scan/transvaginal ultrasound).
4- Fetal therapies (amniocentesis - cordocentesis - pig-tail catheter insertion, etc.).
5- Fetal echocardiography (STIC).
6- Nuchal translucency (NTT) and genetic ultrasound (softmarkers). 
7- Obstetric Doppler, gynecology Doppler and 3D power Doppler.

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What is Medical Ultrasonography (USG)?

Diagnostic sonography (ultrasonography - USG) is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique used for visualizing subcutaneous body structures including tendonsmuscles, joints, vessels and internal organs for possible pathology or lesionsObstetric sonography is commonly used during pregnancy.

In physics, the term "ultrasound" applies to all sound waves with a frequency above the audible range of normal human hearing, about 20 kHz. The frequencies used in diagnostic ultrasound are typically between 2 and 18 MHz. [Source - Wikipedia].

What is 3D Ultrasound (3D Scan)?

There are several different scanning modes in medical and obstetric ultrasound. The standard common obstetric diagnostic mode is 2D scanning.[1] In 3D fetal scanning, however, instead of the sound waves being sent straight down and reflected back, they are sent at different angles. The returning echoes are processed by a sophisticated computer program resulting in a reconstructed three dimensional volume image of the fetus's surface or internal organs, in much the same way as a CT scan machine constructs a CT scan image from multiple x-rays. 3D ultrasounds allow one to see the width, height and depth of images in much the same way as 3D movies but no movement is shown [dubious – discuss] [Source - Wikipedia].

What is 4D Ultrasound (4D Scan)?

4D fetal ultrasounds are similar to 3D scans, with the difference associated with time: 4D scan allows a 3-dimensional picture in real time, rather than delayed, due to the lag associated with the computer constructed image, as in classic 3-dimensional ultrasound. [Source - Wikipedia]

What is Doppler Ultrasound?

Sonography can be enhanced with Doppler measurements, which employ the Doppler effect to assess whether structures (usually blood) are moving towards or away from the probe, and its relative velocity. By calculating the frequency shift of a particular sample volume, for example flow in an artery or a jet of blood flow over a heart valve, its speed and direction can be determined and visualised. This is particularly useful in cardiovascular studies (fetal echocardiography) and essential in many areas such as determining reverse blood flow in the umbilical artery. The Doppler information is displayed graphically using spectral Doppler, or as an image using color Doppler (directional Doppler) or power Doppler (non directional Doppler). This Doppler shift falls in the audible range and is often presented audibly using stereo speakers: this produces a very distinctive, although synthetic, pulsating sound.

Most modern sonographic machines use pulsed Doppler to measure velocity. Pulsed wave machines transmit and receive series of pulses. The frequency shift of each pulse is ignored, however the relative phase changes of the pulses are used to obtain the frequency shift (since frequency is the rate of change of phase). The major advantages of pulsed Doppler over continuous wave is that distance information is obtained (the time between the transmitted and received pulses can be converted into a distance with knowledge of the speed of sound) and gain correction is applied. The disadvantage of pulsed Doppler is that the measurements can suffer from aliasing. The terminology "Doppler ultrasound" or "Doppler sonography", has been accepted to apply to both pulsed and continuous Doppler systems despite the different mechanisms by which the velocity is measured. [Source - Wikipedia]

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Browse our huge OB GYN ultrasound library (3D ultrasound images, 4D ultrasound video clips and 3D ultrasound cine loops), go to the sonogram explanation page and click on the download link to start downloading immediately (visit terms of use).

Tohamy 4D Scan

The Faculty:

Prof. Saied Tohamy. Professor of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB GYN). Ex. director, scientific advisor and senior consultant at Fetal Care Unit - Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. Started his obstetrical and gynecological ultrasound career by training with Prof. Kurjak, A., Prof. Donald, I., Prof. Kobayashi, Prof. Mayda, Prof. Mahran, M and others since 1977 in Zagreb.

Dr. Wael Saied Tohamy. Specialist of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB GYN) at Fetal Care Unit - Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.